- Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from polymers and complex fluids.
- Understanding clustering and solvation in water-soluble polymers and polyelectrolyes.
- The helix-to-coil denaturation transition in DNA and other biology projects.
The SANS Toolbox:
Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is an effective characterization tool for
nanoscale structures. An extensive effort has been expanded to put together a 670
page textbook on the SANS technique and its application to the following areas of
research: (1) Polymers, (2) Complex Fluids, (3) Biology and (4) Materials Science.
This work is the culmination of over 20 years of SANS work mostly at the NIST Center
for Neutron Research. Check out
the entire pdf file.
Distance Learning SANS Course:
A Distance Learning Course covering most aspects of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering is available
SANS Tutorials for Summer Schools:
These are complete audio-visual SANS tutorials that includes introductory
presentations as well as information about SANS data acquisition, data
reduction and data analysis. It takes 4 hours to go over each one of
these tutorials. SANS data sets have been included.
- 1. Structural
Phase Transitions of Pluronic P85 in D2O. A Pluronic triblock copolymer in heavy water
is rich in structural and phase transitions upon heating going all the way
from polymer coil at low temperature to spherical micelles, then to cylindrical
micelles and finally to lamellar morphology at the highest temperature.
- 2. Nanostructure
of SDS Micelles in D2O.
SDS forms micelles in D2O. The effects of temperature and SDS fraction
are investigated. A set of material balance equations show that the
amount of SDS remains dissolved in D2O at the CMC level even after
- 3. Effect
of Ethanol co-Surfactant on SDS micelles.
Ethanol plays the role of co-surfactant on SDS micelles. It is found
that ethanol accumulates inside the micelles!
for the current summer school can be found here .
Physical Characterization Methods:
This is a short tutorial covering the basics of many physical characterization
methods. These include scattering methods (such as SANS, SAXS, DLS, and WAXS),
spectrocopic methods (such as UV-Vis, and FTIR), microscopy (optical and electron
based techniques) as well as other methods (calorimetry, chromatography,
density measurements, etc).
Check out the pdf file.
- A.Z. Akcasu, B. Hammouda, T.P. Lodge and C.C. Han, Dynamic Scattering from Bimodal Polymer Solutions. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, Macromolecules 17, 759-766 (1984)
- W.H. Stockmayer and B. Hammouda, Quasielastic Light Scattering as a Diagnostic of Single Chain Dynamics, Pure and Applied Chem. 56, 1373-1377 (1984)
- A.Z. Akcasu, B. Hammouda, W.H. Stockmayer and G. Tanaka, First Cumulant for Chains with Constraints, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4734-4743 (1986)
- G. Schupp, B. Hammouda and C. Hsueh, Quasielastic Gamma-ray Scattering from Pentadecane, Phys. Rev. A41, 5610-5615 (1990)
- B. Hammouda, R. Briber and B. Bauer, SANS from PSD/PVME/PSH Ternary Polymer Blend, Polymer Communications 33, 1785-1787 (1992)
- B. Hammouda, The Structure Factor for Starburst Dendrimers, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 30, 1387-1390 (1992)
- B. Hammouda, S. Krueger and C. Glinka, Small
Angle Neutron Scattering at the National Institute of Standards and
Technology, J. of Research of NIST 98, 31-46 (1993)
- D. Neumann and B. Hammouda, Ultra
High Resolution Inelastic Neutron Scattering, J. of Research of
NIST 98, 89-108 (1993)
- B. Hammouda, SANS from Homogeneous Polymer Systems: a Unified Overview, Advances in Polym. Sci., 106, 87-133 (1993)
- B. Hammouda, Scattering from Mixtures of Flexible and Stiff Polymers, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3439-3444 (1993)
- A.Z. Akcasu, R. Klein and B. Hammouda, Dynamics of Multicomponent Polymer Mixtures via the Random Phase Approximation Including Hydrodynamic Interactions, Macromolecules 26, 4136-4143 (1993)
- H. Benoit, J.F. Joanny, G. Hadziioannou and B. Hammouda,Scattering by Linear, Branched and Copolymer Chain Molecules for Large Scattering Vectors, Macromolecules 26, 7590-5795 (1993)
- N. Balsara and B. Hammouda, Shear Effects on Block Copolymer Lamellae , Physical Review Letters 72, 360-363 (1994)
- B. Hammouda, B. Bauer, T. Russell, SANS from PSD/PBMA Homopolymer Blends, Macromolecules 27, 2357-2359 (1994)
- B. Hammouda and M. Benmouna, Neutron Scattering from Compressed Polymer Blends, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 33, 2359-2364 (1995)
- R. Krishnamoorti, A.S. Silva, M.A. Modi and B. Hammouda, SANS Study of a Cylinder-to-Sphere Order-Order Transition in Block Copolymers, Macromolecules 33; 3803-3809 (2000)
- B. Hammouda, D. Ho and S. Kline, Neutron Scattering from Associating PEO Systems, Macromolecules 35, 8578-8585 (2002)
- A.V. Ruzette, A. Mayes, M. Pollard, T. Russell and B. Hammouda, Pressure Effects on the Phase Behavior of Styrene/n-Alkyl Methacrylate Block Copolymers, Macromolecules 36, 3351-3356 (2003)
- D. Ho, B. Hammouda, and S. Kline, Clustering of Poly(ethylene oxide) in Water Revisited, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 41, 135-138 (2003)
- B. Hammouda, D. Ho and S. Kline, Insight into Clustering in Poly(ethylene oxide) Solutions, Macromolecules 37, 6932-6937 (2004)
- L. A. Hough , M. F. Islam, B. Hammouda, A. G. Yodh, and P. A. Heiney, Structure of High Weight Fraction Single Wall Carbon Nanotube
Suspensions and Gels, Nano Letters 6, 313-317 (2006).
- B. Hammouda and D. Worcester, The Denaturation Transition of DNA in Mixed Solvents, Biophysical Journal, 91, 2237-2242 (2006).
- B. Hammouda and D. Mildner, SANS Resolution with Refractive Optics, J. Appl. Cryst. 40, 250-259 (2007).
- A.E. Whitten, D.A. Jacques, B. Hammouda, T. Hanley, G.F. King, J.M. Guss, J. Trewhella, and D.B. Langley, The structure of the Sda-KinA
Complex Suggests an Allosteric Mechanism of Histidine Kinase Inhibition, J. Molecular Biology 368, 407-420 (2007).
- T. Owen, R. Pynn, B. Hammouda and A. Butler, Metal-Dependent Self Asembly of a Microbial Surfactant, Langmuir 23, 9393-9400 (2007).
- F. Horkay and B. Hammouda, SANS From Model Synthetic and Biopolymer Solutions, Colloid and Polymer Science, 286, 611-620 (2008).
- G. Cheng, F. Hua, Y.B. Melnichenko, K. Hong, J.W. Mays, B. Hammouda, and G.D. Wignall, Association and Structure of Thermosensitive Comblike Block Copolymers in Aqueous Solutions, Macromolecules 41, 4824-4827 (2008).
- B. Foster, T. Cosgrove, and B. Hammouda, Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Systems and Their Interactions with Ibuprofen, Langmuir 25, 6760-7666 (2009).
- R.A. Hule, R.P. Nagarkar, B. Hammouda, J.P. Schneider and D.J. Pochan, Dependence of Self-Assembled Peptide Hydrogel Network Structure on Local Fibril Nanostructure, Macromolecules 42, 7137-7145 (2009).
- B. Hammouda, The Mystery of Clustering in Macromolecular Media, Polymer 50, 5293-5297 (2009).
- B. Hammouda, SANS from Polymers - Review of the Recent Literature, J. Macromol. Sci. Part C: Polymer Reviews 50,14-39 (2010).
- B. Clover and B. Hammouda, SANS from P85/d-Water under Pressure, Langmuir, 26, 6625-6629 (2010).
- B. Hammouda, A New Guinier-Porod Model, J. Appl. Cryst. 43, 716-719 (2010).
- B. Hammouda, SANS from Pluronic P85 in d-water, European Polymer Journal 46, 2275-2281 (2010).
- B. Hammouda, Analysis of the Beaucage Model, J. Appl. Cryst. 43, 1474-1478 (2010).
Some Recent Publications:
- D. Johansen, C.M.J. Jeffries, B. Hammouda, J. Trewhella and D.P. Goldenberg, Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on an Instrinsically Disordered Protein Characterized by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering with Contrast Matching, Biophysical Journal 100, 1120-1128 (2011).
- J. Xu, B. Yang and B. Hammouda, Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids, Nanoscale Research Letters 6, 274-1 to -6 (2011).
- Z. Li, H. Cheng, J. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhang, B. Hammouda and C.C. Han, Large-Scale Structures in Tetrahydrofuran-Water Mixture with a Trace Amount of Antioxidant Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), J. Phys. Chem. B 23, 7887-7895 (2011).
- L. Hyland, M.B. Taraban, B. Hammouda and Y.B. Yu,
Mutually Reinforced Multicomponent Polysaccharide Networks,
Biopolymers 95, 840-851 (2011).
- S. Pai, B. Hammouda, K. Hong, D. Pozzo, T. Przybycien and R.D.
Conformation of the Poly(ethylene glycol) Chain in
Mono-PEGylated Lysozyme and Mono-PEGylated Human Growth Hormone,, Bioconjugate Chemistry 22, 2317-2323 (2011).
- B. Hammouda,
Small-Angle Scattering from Branched Polymers, Macromo. Theory and
- B.J. Watson, B. Hammouda, R.M. Briber and S.W. Hutcheson,
Influence of Organic Liquids on the Nanostructure of Precipitated
Cellulose, J. of Applied Polymer Science, 127, 2620-2627(2012).
- B. Hammouda, Temperature
Effect on the Nanostructure of SDS Micelles in Water,
J. of Research of NIST 118, 151-167 (2013).
- M. Crawford, R.J. Smalley, G. Choen, B. Hogan, B. Wood, S.K.
Kumar, Y.B. Melnichenko, L. He, W. Guise and B. Hammouda, Chain
Conformation in Polymer Nanocomposites with Uniformly Dispersed
Physical Review Letters 110, 196001-1 to -5 (2013).
- B. Hammouda, D.F.R. Mildner, A. Brulet and S. Desert,
Insight Into Neutron Focussing: the Out-of-Focus Condition, J.
Appl. Cryst. 46, 1361-1371 (2013).
- J. Leys, D. Subramanian, E. Rodezno, B. Hammouda and M.A. Anisimov
Mesoscale Phenomena in Solution of 3-methylpyridine, Heavy Water, and
an Antagonistic Salt, Soft Matter 9, 9326-9334 (2013).
- M. Hore, B. Hammouda, Y. Li and H. Cheng,
Co-Nonsolvency of Poly(n-isopropylacrymide) in Deuterated
Water/Ethanol Mixtures, Macromolecules 46, 7894-7901 (2013).
- S. Pesek, X. Li, B. Hammouda, and R. Verduzco
Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of Bottlebrush Polymers by
Macromolecules 46, 6998-7005 (2013).
- G. Cheng, B. Hammouda and D. Perahia
Effects of Intermicellar Interactions on the Dissociation of Block
Copolymer Micelles: SANS and NMR Studies, Macromolecular Chemistry
and Physics 215, 342-350 (2014).
- B. Kumi, B. Hammouda and S. Greer,
Self-Assembly of the Triblock Copolymer 17R4 in D2O, J. of Colloid
and Interface Science 434, 201-207 (2014).
- B. Hammouda, D. Jia and H. Cheng, Single-Chain
Conformation for Interacting PNIPAM in Aqueous Solution,
Open Access Journal of Science and Technology, 3, 1-8 (2015).
- J. Xu, B. Hammouda, F. Cao, and B. Wang, Experimental
Study of Thermophysical Properties and Nanostructure of Self-Assembled
Water/Polyalphaolefin Nanoemulsion Fluids,
Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 7, 1-8 (2015).
- M. Hore, X. Ye, J. Ford, Y Gao, J Fei, Q. Wu, S. Rowan, R.
Composto, C. Murray and B. HammoudaExperimental
Probing the Structure, Composition, and Spatial Distribution of
Ligands on Gold Nanorods,Nano Letters 15, 5730-5738 (2015).
- F. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Xu, Y. He, B. Hammouda, R. Qiao and B. Yang, Probing
Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions,
Scientific Reports, Nature, 5:16040 (2015).
- B. Hammouda, Form
Factors for Branched Polymers with Excluded Volume,
J. of Research of NIST, 121, 139-164 (2016).
- Y. Zhang, W. Zhao, J. Yang, B. Hammouda, and J. Yang
SANS Study of Self-Assembled Structures of Glucose-Responsive
Phenylborate Ester-Containing Diblock Copolymer,European Polymer
Journal 83, 173-180 (2016)
- D. Jia, T. Zuo, S. Rogers, H. Cheng, B. Hammouda and C. Han,
Re-entrance of Poly(N,N-diethlacrylamide) in D2o/D-Ethanol Mixture at
27 Oc,Macromolecules 49, 5152-5159 (2016)
- G. Yuan, X. Wang, D. Wu and B. Hammouda,
Structural Analysis of Dendrimers Based on POSS and their Assemblies
in Solution by SANS: Fits to a Modified two Correlation Lengths
Model, Polymer 100, 119-125 (2016)
- Y. Gao, R. Nieuwendaal, E.K. Dimitriadis, B. Hammouda, J. Douglas,
B. Xu and F. Horkay
Supramolecular Self-Assembly of a Model Hydrogelator: Characterization
of Fiber Formation and Morphology,
Gels, 27, 2-15 (2016).
- S. Pesek, Q. Xiang, B. Hammouda and R. Verduzco,
SANS Analysis of Bottlebrush Backbone and Side Chain Flexibility,
Journal of Polymer Science, Polymer Physics 55, 104-111 (2017)
- K. Devhari, K-S. Lin, and B. Hammouda
SANS Studies of Microenvironment and Structural Changes of Pluronic
Micelles upon Encapsulation of Paclitaxel,
J. of the Taiwan Institute of Chem. Engin., 71, 405-413 (2017).
- B. Hammouda and M-H Kim
The Empirical Core-Chain Model,
J. of Molecular Liquids, 2471, 434-440 (2017).
List of all Publications:
Postdoctoral Associateship Opportunities:
The National Research Council offers postdoctoral associateship opportunities in our facility at NIST. The successful candidate will be doing research in our area of focus and using our outstanding neutron scattering facilities. US citizenship is required. Selection is highly competitive.
Application deadlines are February 1st
and August 1st each year. More info can be found
Check out this abstract. If interested, please contact me at the address below.
Email address: email@example.com
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Center for Neutron Research
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 6102
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102