USANS Instrument Publications

If you have written a paper that reports measurements using this instrument and you do not see it in the list below, or if the paper is listed but the information is incorrect or out of date, please inform Jeff Krzywon and/or Paul Butler.

If you write a paper or give a presentation that reports measurements using the USANS Instrument, please be sure to:

  1. include an acknowledgement to the NSF, and to NIST if there are no NIST coauthors,and
  2. include a reference to the paper describing the USANS Instrument: "Design and performance of a thermal-neutron double-crystal diffractometer for USANS at NIST", Barker JG, et al. J Appl. Cryst. 38(6), 1004 (2005).

If you reduced your data using the Igor Macros, please include the reference ""Reduction and Analysis of SANS and USANS Data using Igor Pro", Kline, S. R. J Appl. Cryst. 39(6), 895 (2006).

Please be aware that all papers with NIST coauthors must be reviewed and approved by the Washington Editorial Review Board (WERB). Members of WERB are concerned not only with scientific merit but with three specific matters: measurement uncertainties, the use of SI units, and brand names. For more detailed information please visit WERB and/or speak with your NIST coauthor(s).

2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 1997

2019

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  1. Solvent-pore interactions in the Eagle Ford shale formation DiStefano, V.H., McFarlane, J., Stack, A.G., Perfect, E., Mildner, D.F.R., Bleuel, M., Chipera, S.J., Littrell, K.C., Cheshire, M.C., Manz, K.E., and Anovitz, L.M., Fuel 238, 298–311 (2019)
  2. Mineral-controlled nm-μm-scale pore structure of saline lacustrine shale in Qianjiang Depression, Jianghan Basin, China Zhang, Y., Hu, Q., Long, S., Zhao, J., Peng, N., Wang, H., Lin, X., and Sun, M., Marine and Petroleum Geology 99, 347–354 (2019)
  3. Mechanically tunable, human mesenchymal stem cell viable poly(ethylene glycol)–oxime hydrogels with invariant precursor composition, concentration, and stoichiometry Dilla, R.A., Motta, C.M.M., Xu, Y., Zander, Z.K., Bernard, N., Wiener, C.G., Vogt, B.D., and Becker, M.L., Materials Today Chemistry 11, 244–252 (2019)

2018

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  1. Boehmite and Gibbsite Nanoplates for the Synthesis of Advanced Alumina Products Zhang, X., Huestis, P.L., Pearce, C.I., Hu, J.Z., Page, K., Anovitz, L.M., Aleksandrov, A.B., Prange, M.P., Kerisit, S., Bowden, M.E., Cui, W., Wang, Z., Jaegers, N.R., Graham, T.R., Dembowski, M., Wang, H.-W., Liu, J., N’Diaye, A.T., Bleuel, M., Mildner, D.F.R., Orlando, T.M., Kimmel, G.A., La Verne, J.A., Clark, S.B., and Rosso, K.M., ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1, 7115–7128 (2018)
  2. Effects of Ionic Strength, Salt, and pH on Aggregation of Boehmite Nanocrystals: Tumbler Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering and Imaging Analysis Anovitz, L.M., Zhang, X., Soltis, J., Nakouzi, E., Krzysko, A.J., Chun, J., Schenter, G.K., Graham, T.R., Rosso, K.M., De Yoreo, J.J., Stack, A.G., Bleuel, M., Gagnon, C., Mildner, D.F.R., Ilavsky, J., and Kuzmenko, I., Langmuir 34, 15839–15853 (2018)
  3. Flow-through compression cell for small-angle and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering measurements Hjelm, R.P., Taylor, M.A., Frash, L.P., Hawley, M.E., Ding, M., Xu, H., Barker, J., Olds, D., Heath, J., and Dewers, T., Review of Scientific Instruments 89, 055115 (2018)
  4. The effects of burial diagenesis on multiscale porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone: An imaging, small-angle, and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering analysis Anovitz, L.M., Freiburg, J.T., Wasbrough, M., Mildner, D.F.R., Littrell, K.C., Pipich, V., and Ilavsky, J., Marine and Petroleum Geology 92, 352–371 (2018)
  5. Relating microstructure, temperature, and chemistry to explosive ignition and shock sensitivity Lee Perry, W., Clements, B., Ma, X., and Mang, J.T., Combustion and Flame 190, 171–176 (2018)
  6. Determination of porosity in anisotropic fractal systems by neutron scattering Gu, X. and Mildner, D.F.R., J Appl Cryst 51, 175–184 (2018)
  7. Fingerprint of hydrocarbon generation in the southern Georgina Basin, Australia, revealed by small angle neutron scattering Blach, T., Radlinski, A.P., Edwards, D.S., Boreham, C.J., Rehm, C., de Campo, L., and Gilbert, E.P., International Journal of Coal Geology 186, 135–144 (2018)
  8. Dynamically Cross-Linked Self-Assembled Thermoresponsive Microgels with Homogeneous Internal Structures Mueller, E., Alsop, R.J., Scotti, A., Bleuel, M., Rheinstädter, M.C., Richtering, W., and Hoare, T., Langmuir 34, 1601–1612 (2018)
  9. Preparation and characterization of aluminum coatings via electroless plating onto nickel nanowires using ionic liquid plating solution Poges, S., Jin, J., Guild, C., Li, W.-N., Birnkrant, M., and Suib, S.L., Materials Chemistry and Physics 207, 303–308 (2018)

2017

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  1. Glass transition: from interaction potential changes to the corresponding structural and relaxation responses along the path of reaching the final equilibrium Yuan, G. and Han, C.C., Sci. China Chem. 61, 46–53 (2017)
  2. The impact of solvent doping on the morphology and performance of spray-coated PEDOT:dPSS: A USANS and SANS study Etampawala, T., Tehrani, M., Nematollahi, A., He, L., and Dadmun, M., Organic Electronics 51, 86–93 (2017)
  3. Dynamic infrared sample controlled (DISCO) temperature for the tumbler cells for ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) Leão, J.B., Murphy, R.P., Wagner, N.J., and Bleuel, M., JNR 19, 23–26 (2017)
  4. The glass formation of a repulsive system with also a short range attractive potential: A re-interpretation of the free volume theory Yuan, G., Cheng, H., and Han, C.C., Polymer 131, 272–286 (2017)
  5. Salt induced polystyrene latex flocs investigated by neutron scattering Kwaambwa, H.M., Hellsing, M.S., Wasbrough, M.J., Bleuel, M., and Rennie, A.R., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 505, 9–13 (2017)
  6. Clustering and Percolation in Suspensions of Carbon Black Richards, J.J., Hipp, J.B., Riley, J.K., Wagner, N.J., and Butler, P.D., Langmuir 33, 12260–12266 (2017)
  7. Domain formation in the type-II/1 superconductor niobium: Interplay of pinning, geometry, and attractive vortex-vortex interaction Reimann, T., Schulz, M., Mildner, D.F.R., Bleuel, M., Brûlet, A., Harti, R.P., Benka, G., Bauer, A., Böni, P., and Mühlbauer, S., Phys. Rev. B 96, 144506 (2017)
  8. Resolving Hierarchical Structures in Carbon Nanotube Networks Using Small- and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering Tehrani, M., Etampawala, T.N.B., Dadmun, M., and Hossain, M.A., J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 22442–22451 (2017)
  9. Chemical and physical changes during seawater flow through intact dunite cores: An experimental study at 150–200 °C Luhmann, A.J., Tutolo, B.M., Bagley, B.C., Mildner, D.F.R., Scheuermann, P.P., Feinberg, J.M., Ignatyev, K., and Seyfried, W.E., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 214, 86–114 (2017)
  10. Microstructure characterization of alkali-glass particle and alkali-glass powder reacted gels with neutron scattering and imaging techniques Sun, X., Guo, S., Dai, Q., and Xiao, X., Materials Characterization 131, 98–107 (2017)
  11. Weathering of rock to regolith: The activity of deep roots in bedrock fractures Hasenmueller, E.A., Gu, X., Weitzman, J.N., Adams, T.S., Stinchcomb, G.E., Eissenstat, D.M., Drohan, P.J., Brantley, S.L., and Kaye, J.P., Geoderma 300, 11–31 (2017)
  12. Peptide valency plays an important role in the activity of a synthetic fibrin-crosslinking polymer Lamm, R.J., Lim, E.B., Weigandt, K.M., Pozzo, L.D., White, N.J., and Pun, S.H., Biomaterials 132, 96–104 (2017)
  13. Evaluation of accessible mineral surface areas for improved prediction of mineral reaction rates in porous media Beckingham, L.E., Steefel, C.I., Swift, A.M., Voltolini, M., Yang, L., Anovitz, L.M., Sheets, J.M., Cole, D.R., Kneafsey, T.J., Mitnick, E.H., Zhang, S., Landrot, G., Ajo-Franklin, J.B., DePaolo, D.J., Mito, S., and Xue, Z., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 205, 31–49 (2017)
  14. Permeability, porosity, and mineral surface area changes in basalt cores induced by reactive transport of CO 2 -rich brine: PHYSICAL CHANGES FROM REACTION IN BASALT Luhmann, A.J., Tutolo, B.M., Bagley, B.C., Mildner, D.F.R., Seyfried, W.E., and Saar, M.O., Water Resour. Res. 53, 1908–1927 (2017)
  15. Illumination alters the structure of gels formed from the model optoelectronic material P3HT Morgan, B. and Dadmun, M.D., Polymer 108, 313–321 (2017)
  16. Optimising low molecular weight hydrogels for automated 3D printing Nolan, M.C., Fuentes Caparrós, A.M., Dietrich, B., Barrow, M., Cross, E.R., Bleuel, M., King, S.M., and Adams, D.J., Soft Matter 13, 8426–8432 (2017)
  17. Rheological characterization of yield stress gels formed via electrostatic heteroaggregation of metal oxide nanoparticles S. Weston, J., H. Harwell, J., and P. Grady, B., Soft Matter 13, 6743–6755 (2017)

2016

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  1. Determination of closed porosity in rocks by small-angle neutron scattering Bahadur, J., Medina, C.R., He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., Rupp, J.A., Blach, T.P., and Mildner, D.F.R., J Appl Cryst 49, 2021–2030 (2016)
  2. Bimodal poly(ethylene-cb-propylene) comb block copolymers from serial reactors: Synthesis and applications as processability additives and blend compatibilizers Tsou, A.H., López-Barrón, C.R., Jiang, P., Crowther, D.J., and Zeng, Y., Polymer 104, 72–82 (2016)
  3. Multiscale metrologies for process optimization of carbon nanotube polymer composites Natarajan, B., Orloff, N.D., Ashkar, R., Doshi, S., Twedt, K., Krishnamurthy, A., Davis, C., Forster, A.M., Thostenson, E., Obrzut, J., Sharma, R., and Liddle, J.A., Carbon 108, 381–393 (2016)
  4. Gelation transitions of colloidal systems with bridging attractions Yuan, G., Luo, J., Han, C.C., and Liu, Y., Phys. Rev. E 94, 040601 (2016)
  5. Structure and Dynamics of Interacting Nanoparticles in Semidilute Polymer Solutions Poling-Skutvik, R., Mongcopa, K.I.S., Faraone, A., Narayanan, S., Conrad, J.C., and Krishnamoorti, R., Macromolecules 49, 6568–6577 (2016)
  6. Asymmetrical phase separation and gelation in binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids Zong, Y., Yuan, G., and Han, C.C., The Journal of Chemical Physics 145, 014904 (2016)
  7. Quantification of Organic Porosity and Water Accessibility in Marcellus Shale Using Neutron Scattering Gu, X., Mildner, D.F.R., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Slingerland, R., and Brantley, S.L., Energy Fuels 30, 4438–4449 (2016)
  8. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry Gu, X. and Mildner, D.F.R., J Appl Cryst 49, 934–943 (2016)
  9. Extrinsic Wrinkling and Single Exfoliated Sheets of Graphene Oxide in Polymer Composites Weir, M.P., Johnson, D.W., Boothroyd, S.C., Savage, R.C., Thompson, R.L., Parnell, S.R., Parnell, A.J., King, S.M., Rogers, S.E., Coleman, K.S., and Clarke, N., Chem. Mater. 28, 1698–1704 (2016)
  10. Graphene Nanocomposites with High Molecular Weight Poly(ε-caprolactone) Grafts: Controlled Synthesis and Accelerated Crystallization Mondal, T., Ashkar, R., Butler, P., Bhowmick, A.K., and Krishnamoorti, R., ACS Macro Lett. 5, 278–282 (2016)
  11. Nanoscale constraints on porosity generation and fluid flow during serpentinization Tutolo, B.M., Mildner, D.F.R., Gagnon, C.V.L., Saar, M.O., and Seyfried, W.E., Geology 44, 103–106 (2016)
  12. Sustained release of active chemotherapeutics from injectable-solid β-hairpin peptide hydrogel Sun, J.E.P., Stewart, B., Litan, A., Lee, S.J., Schneider, J.P., Langhans, S.A., and Pochan, D.J., Biomater. Sci. 4, 839–848 (2016)
  13. COMBINED USE OF NEUTRON-SCATTERING, FLUID-INVASION, AND IMAGE-ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS PORE STRUCTURE, ACCESSIBILITY, AND CONNECTIVITY IN TIGHT ROCK Clarkson, C.R. and Solano, N.A., 21, 15–31 (2016)
  14. Tuning the bridging attraction between large hard particles by the softness of small microgels Luo, J., Yuan, G., and Han, C.C., Soft Matter 12, 7863–7872 (2016)

2015

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  1. Local Crystalline Structure in an Amorphous Protein Dense Phase Greene, D.G., Modla, S., Wagner, N.J., Sandler, S.I., and Lenhoff, A.M., Biophysical Journal 109, 1716–1723 (2015)
  2. 3D reconstruction of carbon nanotube networks from neutron scattering experiments Mahdavi, M., Baniassadi, M., Baghani, M., Dadmun, M., and Tehrani, M., Nanotechnology 26, 385704 (2015)
  3. Effects of maturation on multiscale (nanometer to millimeter) porosity in the Eagle Ford Shale Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., Sheets, J.M., Swift, A., Elston, H.W., Welch, S., Chipera, S.J., Littrell, K.C., Mildner, D.F.R., and Wasbrough, M.J., Interpretation 3, SU59–SU70 (2015)
  4. Effect of quartz overgrowth precipitation on the multiscale porosity of sandstone: A (U)SANS and imaging analysis Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., Jackson, A.J., Rother, G., Littrell, K.C., Allard, L.F., Pollington, A.D., and Wesolowski, D.J., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 158, 199–222 (2015)
  5. Shear-Dependent Interactions in Hydrophobically Modified Ethylene Oxide Urethane (HEUR) Based Coatings: Mesoscale Structure and Viscosity Van Dyk, A.K., Chatterjee, T., Ginzburg, V.V., and Nakatani, A.I., Macromolecules 48, 1866–1882 (2015)
  6. Pore Architecture and Connectivity in Gas Shale King, H.E., Eberle, A.P.R., Walters, C.C., Kliewer, C.E., Ertas, D., and Huynh, C., Energy Fuels 29, 1375–1390 (2015)
  7. Pores in Marcellus Shale: A Neutron Scattering and FIB-SEM Study Gu, X., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Mildner, D.F.R., and Brantley, S.L., Energy Fuels 29, 1295–1308 (2015)
  8. Small-Angle and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS/USANS) Study of New Albany Shale: A Treatise on Microporosity Bahadur, J., Radlinski, A.P., Melnichenko, Y.B., Mastalerz, M., and Schimmelmann, A., Energy Fuels 29, 567–576 (2015)
  9. Gelation of large hard particles with short-range attraction induced by bridging of small soft microgels Luo, J., Yuan, G., Zhao, C., Han, C.C., Chen, J., and Liu, Y., Soft Matter 11, 2494–2503 (2015)
  10. How Oxidation and Dissolution in Diabase and Granite Control Porosity during Weathering Bazilevskaya, E., Rother, G., Mildner, D.F.R., Pavich, M., Cole, D., Bhatt, M.P., Jin, L., Steefel, C.I., and Brantley, S.L., Soil Science Society of America Journal 79, 55 (2015)
  11. How Porosity Increases During Incipient Weathering of Crystalline Silicate Rocks Navarre-Sitchler, A., Brantley, S.L., and Rother, G., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 80, 331–354 (2015)

2014

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  1. Triblock Copolymer Self-Assembly in Ionic Liquids: Effect of PEO Block Length on the Self-Assembly of PEO–PPO–PEO in Ethylammonium Nitrate López-Barrón, C.R., Li, D., Wagner, N.J., and Caplan, J.L., Macromolecules 47, 7484–7495 (2014)
  2. Hierarchical Pore Morphology of Cretaceous Shale: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering Study Bahadur, J., Melnichenko, Y.B., Mastalerz, M., Furmann, A., and Clarkson, C.R., Energy Fuels 28, 6336–6344 (2014)
  3. Structure of flocs of latex particles formed by addition of protein from Moringa seeds Hellsing, M.S., Kwaambwa, H.M., Nermark, F.M., Nkoane, B.B.M., Jackson, A.J., Wasbrough, M.J., Berts, I., Porcar, L., and Rennie, A.R., Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 460, 460–467 (2014)
  4. Microstructure and nonlinear signatures of yielding in a heterogeneous colloidal gel under large amplitude oscillatory shear Kim, J., Merger, D., Wilhelm, M., and Helgeson, M.E., Journal of Rheology 58, 1359–1390 (2014)
  5. Relationship between mineralogy and porosity in seals relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration Swift, A.M., Anovitz, L.M., Sheets, J.M., Cole, D.R., Welch, S.A., and Rother, G., Environ. Geosci. 21, 39–57 (2014)
  6. Spatially Resolved Concentration and Segmental Flow Alignment in a Shear-Banding Solution of Polymer-Like Micelles Gurnon, A.K., López-Barrón, C., Wasbrough, M.J., Porcar, L., and Wagner, N.J., ACS Macro Lett. 3, 276–280 (2014)
  7. Controlled gelation of poly(3-alkylthiophene)s in bulk and in thin-films using low volatility solvent/poor-solvent mixtures Newbloom, G.M., de la Iglesia, P., and Pozzo, L.D., Soft Matter 10, 8945–8954 (2014)
  8. Homogeneous percolation versus arrested phase separation in attractively-driven nanoemulsion colloidal gels Helgeson, M.E., Gao, Y., Moran, S.E., Lee, J., Godfrin, M., Tripathi, A., Bose, A., and Doyle, P.S., Soft Matter 10, 3122 (2014)
  9. Multiscale (nano to mm) Porosity in the Eagle Ford Shale: Changes as a Function of Maturity Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., Swift, A.M., Sheets, J., Elston, H.W., Welch, S.A., Chipera, S.J., Littrell, K.C., Mildner, D.F., and Wasbrough, M., in (American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 2014)
  10. Turning up the heat on wormlike micelles with a hydrotopic salt in microfluidics Cardiel, J.J., Zhao, Y., De La Iglesia, P., Pozzo, L.D., and Shen, A.Q., Soft Matter 10, 9300–9312 (2014)

2013

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  1. Fibrillar Structure in Aqueous Methylcellulose Solutions and Gels Lott, J.R., McAllister, J.W., Wasbrough, M., Sammler, R.L., Bates, F.S., and Lodge, T.P., Macromolecules 46, 9760–9771 (2013)
  2. Flow-Induced Structured Phase in Nonionic Micellar Solutions Cardiel, J.J., Tonggu, L., de la Iglesia, P., Zhao, Y., Pozzo, D.C., Wang, L., and Shen, A.Q., Langmuir 29, 15485–15495 (2013)
  3. Worming Their Way into Shape: Toroidal Formations in Micellar Solutions Cardiel, J.J., Tonggu, L., Dohnalkova, A.C., de la Iglesia, P., Pozzo, D.C., Wang, L., and Shen, A.Q., ACS Nano 7, 9704–9713 (2013)
  4. Multi-scale characterization of pore evolution in a combustion metamorphic complex, Hatrurim basin, Israel: Combining (ultra) small-angle neutron scattering and image analysis Wang, H.-W., Anovitz, L.M., Burg, A., Cole, D.R., Allard, L.F., Jackson, A.J., Stack, A.G., and Rother, G., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 121, 339–362 (2013)
  5. Evolution of porosity and geochemistry in Marcellus Formation black shale during weathering Jin, L., Mathur, R., Rother, G., Cole, D., Bazilevskaya, E., Williams, J., Carone, A., and Brantley, S., Chemical Geology 356, 50–63 (2013)
  6. A holder to rotate sample cells to avoid sedimentation in small-angle neutron scattering and ultra small-angle neutron scattering experiments Olsson, A., Hellsing, M.S., and Rennie, A.R., Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 105901 (2013)
  7. Fractal Networks of Inter-Granular Voids in Pressed TATB Mang, J.T. and Hjelm, R.P., Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 38, 831–840 (2013)
  8. Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks Navarre-Sitchler, A.K., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Jin, L., Buss, H.L., and Brantley, S.L., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 109, 400–413 (2013)
  9. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: LUQUILLO DEEP CRITICAL ZONE Buss, H.L., Brantley, S.L., Scatena, F.N., Bazilievskaya, E.A., Blum, A., Schulz, M., Jiménez, R., White, A.F., Rother, G., and Cole, D., Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 38, 1170–1186 (2013)
  10. Shear rate-dependent structure of polymer-stabilized TiO2 dispersions Van Dyk, A. and Nakatani, A., J Coat Technol Res 10, 297–303 (2013)
  11. DCD USANS and SESANS: a comparison of two neutron scattering techniques applicable for the study of large-scale structures Rehm, C., Barker, J., Bouwman, W.G., and Pynn, R., J Appl Cryst 46, 354–364 (2013)
  12. A USANS/SANS Study of the Accessibility of Pores in the Barnett Shale to Methane and Water Ruppert, L.F., Sakurovs, R., Blach, T.P., He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., Mildner, D.F.R., and Alcantar-Lopez, L., Energy Fuels 27, 772–779 (2013)
  13. Diagenetic changes in macro- to nano-scale porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone: An (ultra) small angle neutron scattering and backscattered electron imaging analysis Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Allard, L.F., Jackson, A.J., and Littrell, K.C., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 102, 280–305 (2013)
  14. Effects of supersaturation on the structure and properties of poly(9,9-dioctyl fluorene) organogels Iglesia, P. de . la . and Pozzo, D.C., Soft Matter 9, 11214 (2013)
  15. Practical applications of small-angle neutron scattering Hollamby, M.J., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10566 (2013)
  16. Pore structure characterization of North American shale gas reservoirs using USANS/SANS, gas adsorption, and mercury intrusion Clarkson, C.R., Solano, N., Bustin, R.M., Bustin, A.M.M., Chalmers, G.R.L., He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., Radliński, A.P., and Blach, T.P., Fuel 103, 606–616 (2013)

2012

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  1. Where fast weathering creates thin regolith and slow weathering creates thick regolith: FAST WEATHERING - THIN REGOLITH, SLOW WEATHERING - THICK REGOLITH Bazilevskaya, E., Lebedeva, M., Pavich, M., Rother, G., Parkinson, D.Y., Cole, D., and Brantley, S.L., Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 38, 847–858 (2012)
  2. Spontaneous Thermoreversible Formation of Cationic Vesicles in a Protic Ionic Liquid López-Barrón, C.R., Li, D., DeRita, L., Basavaraj, M.G., and Wagner, N.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20728–20732 (2012)
  3. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals Sakurovs, R., He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., Radlinski, A.P., Blach, T., Lemmel, H., and Mildner, D.F.R., International Journal of Coal Geology 100, 51–64 (2012)
  4. Porosity of Coal and Shale: Insights from Gas Adsorption and SANS/USANS Techniques Mastalerz, M., He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., and Rupp, J.A., Energy Fuels 26, 5109–5120 (2012)
  5. Characterization of tight gas reservoir pore structure using USANS/SANS and gas adsorption analysis Clarkson, C.R., Freeman, M., He, L., Agamalian, M., Melnichenko, Y.B., Mastalerz, M., Bustin, R.M., Radliński, A.P., and Blach, T.P., Fuel 95, 371–385 (2012)
  6. Chemically modifiable fluorinated copolymer nanoparticles for 19F-MRI contrast enhancement Bailey, M.M., Kline, S.R., Anderson, M.D., Staymates, J.L., and Berkland, C., J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 126, 1218–1227 (2012)
  7. Electrical, Mechanical, and Structural Characterization of Self-Assembly in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Organogel Networks Newbloom, G.M., Weigandt, K.M., and Pozzo, D.C., Macromolecules 45, 3452–3462 (2012)
  8. Pore Accessibility by Methane and Carbon Dioxide in Coal as Determined by Neutron Scattering He, L., Melnichenko, Y.B., Mastalerz, M., Sakurovs, R., Radlinski, A.P., and Blach, T., Energy Fuels 26, 1975–1983 (2012)
  9. Mesoporous organohydrogels from thermogelling photocrosslinkable nanoemulsions Helgeson, M.E., Moran, S.E., An, H.Z., and Doyle, P.S., Nature Mater 11, 344–352 (2012)
  10. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C–S–H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage Thomas, J.J., Allen, A.J., and Jennings, H.M., Cement and Concrete Research 42, 377–383 (2012)
  11. SANS and SAXS Analysis of Charged Nanoparticle Adsorption at Oil–Water Interfaces Larson-Smith, K., Jackson, A., and Pozzo, D.C., Langmuir 28, 2493–2501 (2012)
  12. Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide Melnichenko, Y.B., He, L., Sakurovs, R., Kholodenko, A.L., Blach, T., Mastalerz, M., Radliński, A.P., Cheng, G., and Mildner, D.F.R., Fuel 91, 200–208 (2012)

2011

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  1. Nucleation under Soft Confinement: Role of Polymer–Solute Interactions Diao, Y., Helgeson, M.E., Siam, Z.A., Doyle, P.S., Myerson, A.S., Hatton, T.A., and Trout, B.L., Crystal Growth & Design 12, 508–517 (2011)
  2. A More Informative Approach for Characterization of Polymer Monolithic Phases: Small Angle Neutron Scattering/Ultrasmall Angle Neutron Scattering Ford, K.M., Konzman, B.G., and Rubinson, J.F., Anal. Chem. 83, 9201–9205 (2011)
  3. Aqueous dispersions of colloidal poly(3-hexylthiophene) gel particles with high internal porosity Richards, J.J., Weigandt, K.M., and Pozzo, D.C., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 364, 341–350 (2011)
  4. Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) characterization of electrically conducting polyaniline nanofiber/polyimide nanocomposites Hopkins, A.R., Tomczak, S.J., Vij, V., and Jackson, A.J., Thin Solid Films 520, 1617–1620 (2011)
  5. The pore wall structure of porous semi-crystalline anatase TiO 2 Kim, M.-H., Doh, J.-M., Han, S.C., Chae, K.H., Yu, B.-Y., Hong, K.T., Jackson, A., and Anovitz, L.M., J Appl Cryst 44, 1238–1245 (2011)
  6. Reversible Phase Transitions within Self-Assembled Fibrillar Networks of ( R )-18-( n -Alkylamino)octadecan-7-ols in Their Carbon Tetrachloride Gels Mallia, V.A., Butler, P.D., Sarkar, B., Holman, K.T., and Weiss, R.G., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15045–15054 (2011)
  7. Characterization of porous materials using combined small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques Hu, N., Borkar, N., Kohls, D., and Schaefer, D.W., Journal of Membrane Science 379, 138–145 (2011)
  8. Characterization of the pore structure of metakaolin-derived geopolymers by neutron scattering and electron microscopy Maitland, C.F., Buckley, C.E., O'Connor, B.H., Butler, P.D., and Hart, R.D., J Appl Cryst 44, 697–707 (2011)
  9. Mesoscale Morphology and Charge Transport in Colloidal Networks of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Newbloom, G.M., Kim, F.S., Jenekhe, S.A., and Pozzo, D.C., Macromolecules 44, 3801–3809 (2011)
  10. Characterization of deep weathering and nanoporosity development in shale--A neutron study Jin, L., Rother, G., Cole, D.R., Mildner, D.F.R., Duffy, C.J., and Brantley, S.L., American Mineralogist 96, 498–512 (2011)
  11. Protein aggregate structure under high pressure Jackson, A.J. and McGillivray, D.J., Chem. Commun. 47, 487–489 (2011)

2010

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  1. Multifunctional Polyurea Aerogels from Isocyanates and Water. A Structure−Property Case Study Leventis, N., Sotiriou-Leventis, C., Chandrasekaran, N., Mulik, S., Larimore, Z.J., Lu, H., Churu, G., and Mang, J.T., Chem. Mater. 22, 6692–6710 (2010)
  2. Highly Conductive Multifunctional Graphene Polycarbonate Nanocomposites Yoonessi, M. and Gaier, J.R., ACS Nano 4, 7211–7220 (2010)
  3. The Effects of TATB Ratchet Growth on PBX 9502 Thompson, D.G., Brown, G.W., Olinger, B., Mang, J.T., Patterson, B., DeLuca, R., and Hagelberg, S., Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 35, 507–513 (2010)
  4. Direct Observation of Flow-Concentration Coupling in a Shear-Banding Fluid Helgeson, M.E., Porcar, L., Lopez-Barron, C., and Wagner, N.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 084501 (2010)
  5. Design of nonaqueous polymer gels with broad temperature performance: Impact of solvent quality and processing conditions Mrozek, R.A., Cole, P.J., Cole, S.M., Schroeder, J.L., Schneider, D.A., Hedden, R.C., and Lenhart, J.L., J. Mater. Res. 25, 1105–1117 (2010)
  6. Analysis of nano-porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone Using (Ultra) Small Angle Neutron Scattering Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Valley, J.W., and Jackson, A., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 74, A26 (2010)
  7. Neutron scattering study of internal void structure in RDX Stoltz, C.A., Mason, B.P., and Hooper, J., Journal of Applied Physics 107, 103527 (2010)
  8. Monitoring Phase Behavior of Sub- and Supercritical CO 2 Confined in Porous Fractal Silica with 85% Porosity Melnichenko, Y.B., Mayama, H., Cheng, G., and Blach, T., Langmuir 26, 6374–6379 (2010)
  9. USANS study of porosity and water content in sponge-like hydrogels Iannuzzi, M.A., Reber, R., Lentz, D.M., Zhao, J., Ma, L., and Hedden, R.C., Polymer 51, 2049–2056 (2010)
  10. Small angle scattering model for Pickering emulsions and raspberry particles Larson-Smith, K., Jackson, A., and Pozzo, D.C., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 343, 36–41 (2010)
  11. Study of Enzymatic Digestion of Cellulose by Small Angle Neutron Scattering Kent, M.S., Cheng, G., Murton, J.K., Carles, E.L., Dibble, D.C., Zendejas, F., Rodriquez, M.A., Tran, H., Holmes, B., Simmons, B.A., Knierim, B., Auer, M., Banuelos, J.L., Urquidi, J., and Hjelm, R.P., Biomacromolecules 11, 357–368 (2010)
  12. Shear-Induced Nanometer and Micrometer Structural Responses in Nanocomposite Hydrogels Loizou, E., Porcar, L., Schexnailder, P., Schmidt, G., and Butler, P., Macromolecules 43, 1041–1049 (2010)

2009

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  1. A new approach to quantification of metamorphism using ultra-small and small angle neutron scattering Anovitz, L.M., Lynn, G.W., Cole, D.R., Rother, G., Allard, L.F., Hamilton, W.A., Porcar, L., and Kim, M.-H., Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 7303–7324 (2009)
  2. Measurement of Porosity in a Composite High Explosive as a Function of Pressing Conditions by Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering with Contrast Variation Mang, J.T., Hjelm, R.P., and Francois, E.G., Prop., Explos., Pyrotech. NA–NA (2009)
  3. Nearly complete regression of tumors via collective behavior of magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia Dennis, C.L., Jackson, A.J., Borchers, J.A., Hoopes, P.J., Strawbridge, R., Foreman, A.R., van Lierop, J., Grüttner, C., and Ivkov, R., Nanotechnology 20, 395103 (2009)
  4. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering: A tool to study packing of relatively monodisperse polymer spheres and their binary mixtures Reynolds, P.A., McGillivray, D.J., Jackson, A.J., and White, J.W., Phys. Rev. E 80, 011301 (2009)
  5. Crystal structure of highly concentrated, ionic microgel suspensions studied by neutron scattering Gasser, U., Sierra-Martin, B., and Fernandez-Nieves, A., Phys. Rev. E 79, 051403 (2009)
  6. Correlation between Structure and Vapor Sorption in Semicrystalline Linear Polyethylene: One Dimensional Nano-Swelling Measured Using in Situ Vapor Sorption Small Angle Neutron Scattering (iVSANS) Kim, M.-H. and Glinka, C.J., Macromolecules 42, 2618–2625 (2009)
  7. Microstructure of shear-thickening concentrated suspensions determined by flow-USANS Kalman, D.P. and Wagner, N.J., Rheol Acta 48, 897–908 (2009)
  8. Length-Dependent Mechanics of Carbon-Nanotube Networks Rahatekar, S.S., Koziol, K.K., Kline, S.R., Hobbie, E.K., Gilman, J.W., and Windle, A.H., Adv. Mater. 21, 874–878 (2009)
  9. Dynamic Micromapping of CO 2 Sorption in Coal Radliński, A.P., Busbridge, T.L., Gray, E.M., Blach, T.P., Cheng, G., Melnichenko, Y.B., Cookson, D.J., Mastalerz, M., and Esterle, J., Langmuir 25, 2385–2389 (2009)
  10. Structural Analysis and Mechanical Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Based Doubly Cross-Linked Networks Jha, A.K., Hule, R.A., Jiao, T., Teller, S.S., Clifton, R.J., Duncan, R.L., Pochan, D.J., and Jia, X., Macromolecules 42, 537–546 (2009)
  11. Structural Approaches on the Toughness in Double Network Hydrogels Tominaga, T., Osada, Y., and Gong, J.P., in Chemomechanical Instabilities in Responsive Materials, edited by P. Borckmans, P. De Kepper, A.R. Khokhlov, and S. Métens (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009), pp. 117–138
  12. Structure of high density fibrin networks probed with neutron scattering and rheology Weigandt, K.M., Pozzo, D.C., and Porcar, L., Soft Matter 5, 4321 (2009)
  13. Characterization of the CO2 fluid adsorption in coal as a function of pressure using neutron scattering techniques (SANS and USANS) Melnichenko, Y.B., Radlinski, A.P., Mastalerz, M., Cheng, G., and Rupp, J., International Journal of Coal Geology 77, 69–79 (2009)
  14. Effect of Pigment Dispersion on Durability of a TiO2 Pigmented Epoxy Coating During Outdoor Exposure Clerici, C., Gu, X., Sung, L.-P., Forster, A.M., Ho, D.L., Stutzman, P., Nguyen, T., and Martin, J.W., in Service Life Prediction of Polymeric Materials, edited by J.W. Martin, R.A. Ryntz, J. Chin, and R.A. Dickie (Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009), pp. 475–492
  15. Heterogeneity in nanocomposite hydrogels from poly(ethylene oxide) cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles Schexnailder, P., Loizou, E., Porcar, L., Butler, P., and Schmidt, G., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 2760 (2009)
  16. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity Heitfeld, K.A. and Schaefer, D.W., Soft Matter 5, 156–163 (2009)

2008

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  1. Neutron Scattering Study of the Structural Change Induced by Photopolymerization of AOT/D 2 O/Dodecyl Acrylate Inverse Microemulsions Marszalek, J., Pojman, J.A., and Page, K.A., Langmuir 24, 13694–13700 (2008)
  2. Neutron transmission of single-crystal magnesium fluoride Barker, J.G., Mildner, D.F.R., Rodriguez, J.A., and Thiyagarajan, P., J Appl Cryst 41, 1003–1008 (2008)
  3. Self-Assembly in Complex Mixed Surfactant Solutions: The Impact of Dodecyl Triethylene Glycol on Dihexadecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide Tucker, I., Penfold, J., Thomas, R.K., Grillo, I., Mildner, D.F.R., and Barker, J.G., Langmuir 24, 10089–10098 (2008)
  4. Self-Assembly in Mixed Dialkyl Chain Cationic−Nonionic Surfactant Mixtures: Dihexadecyldimethyl Ammonium Bromide−Monododecyl Hexaethylene Glycol (Monododecyl Dodecaethylene Glycol) Mixtures Tucker, I., Penfold, J., Thomas, R.K., Grillo, I., Barker, J.G., and Mildner, D.F.R., Langmuir 24, 7674–7687 (2008)
  5. The Surface and Solution Properties of Dihexadecyl Dimethylammonium Bromide Tucker, I., Penfold, J., Thomas, R.K., Grillo, I., Barker, J.G., and Mildner, D.F.R., Langmuir 24, 6509–6520 (2008)
  6. Molecular Model for Toughening in Double-Network Hydrogels Tirumala, V.R., Tominaga, T., Lee, S., Butler, P.D., Lin, E.K., Gong, J.P., and Wu, W.-. li ., J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 8024–8031 (2008)
  7. The influence of magnetic and physiological behaviour on the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia Dennis, C.L., Jackson, A.J., Borchers, J.A., Ivkov, R., Foreman, A.R., Hoopes, P.J., Strawbridge, R., Pierce, Z., Goerntiz, E., Lau, J.W., and Gruettner, C., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 134020 (2008)
  8. Hierarchical Structure of Carbon Nanotube Networks Chatterjee, T., Jackson, A., and Krishnamoorti, R., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 6934–6935 (2008)
  9. In vivo deuteration strategies for neutron scattering analysis of bacterial polyhydroxyoctanoate Russell, R.A., Holden, P.J., Wilde, K.L., Garvey, C.J., Hammerton, K.M., and Foster, L.J.R., Eur Biophys J 37, 711–715 (2008)
  10. The influence of collective behavior on the magnetic and heating properties of iron oxide nanoparticles Dennis, C.L., Jackson, A.J., Borchers, J.A., Ivkov, R., Foreman, A.R., Lau, J.W., Goernitz, E., and Gruettner, C., Journal of Applied Physics 103, 07A319 (2008)
  11. Temperature responsive hydroxypropyl cellulose for encapsulation Heitfeld, K.A., Guo, T., Yang, G., and Schaefer, D.W., Materials Science and Engineering: C 28, 374–379 (2008)
  12. Thermodynamic Interactions in Double-Network Hydrogels Tominaga, T., Tirumala, V.R., Lee, S., Lin, E.K., Gong, J.P., and Wu, W.-. li ., J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 3903–3909 (2008)
  13. Neutron scattering, electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical studies of carbon nanofiber/phenolic resin composites Yoonessi, M., Toghiani, H., Wheeler, R., Porcar, L., Kline, S., and Pittman, C.U., Carbon 46, 577–588 (2008)
  14. The influence of curvature on membrane domains Pencer, J., Jackson, A., Kučerka, N., Nieh, M.-P., and Katsaras, J., Eur Biophys J 37, 665–671 (2008)
  15. Correlations between structure, material properties and bioproperties in self-assembled β-hairpin peptide hydrogels Hule, R.A., Nagarkar, R.P., Altunbas, A., Ramay, H.R., Branco, M.C., Schneider, J.P., and Pochan, D.J., Faraday Discuss. 139, 251 (2008)
  16. Characterization of Micron-Sized Periodic Structures in Multicomponent Polymer Blends by Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Optical Microscopy Wanakule, N.S., Nedoma, A.J., Robertson, M.L., Fang, Z., Jackson, A., Garetz, B.A., and Balsara, N.P., Macromolecules 41, 471–477 (2008)

2007

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  1. The molecular origin of enhanced toughness in double-network hydrogels: A neutron scattering study Tominaga, T., Tirumala, V.R., Lin, E.K., Gong, J.P., Furukawa, H., Osada, Y., and Wu, W.-. li ., Polymer 48, 7449–7454 (2007)
  2. Effect of Polyelectrolyte Structure on Protein−Polyelectrolyte Coacervates: Coacervates of Bovine Serum Albumin with Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) versus Chitosan Kayitmazer, A.B., Strand, S.P., Tribet, C., Jaeger, W., and Dubin, P.L., Biomacromolecules 8, 3568–3577 (2007)
  3. Dynamic consequences of the fractal network of nanotube-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites Chatterjee, T. and Krishnamoorti, R., Phys. Rev. E 75, 050403 (2007)
  4. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires Plomp, J., Barker, J.G., de Haan, V.O., Bouwman, W.G., and van Well, A.A., Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 574, 324–329 (2007)
  5. Investigating microstructure of concentrated suspensions of anisotropic particles under shear by small angle neutron scattering Mock, E.B. and Zukoski, C.F., Journal of Rheology 51, 541–559 (2007)
  6. Micro- to Nanoscale Structure of Biocompatible PLA−PEO−PLA Hydrogels Agrawal, S.K., Sanabria-DeLong, N., Jemian, P.R., Tew, G.N., and Bhatia, S.R., Langmuir 23, 5039–5044 (2007)
  7. Interphase effects in dental nanocomposites investigated by small-angle neutron scattering Wilson, K.S., Allen, A.J., Washburn, N.R., and Antonucci, J.M., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 81A, 113–123 (2007)
  8. Composition and density of nanoscale calcium–silicate–hydrate in cement Allen, A.J., Thomas, J.J., and Jennings, H.M., Nature Mater 6, 311–316 (2007)
  9. Fingerprinting white marbles of archaeometric interest by means of combined SANS and USANS Triolo, R., Lo Celso, F., Benfante, V., Gorgoni, C., Barker, J., Butler, P., and Ruffo, I., Il Nuovo Cimento C 129 (2007)
  10. Analysis of C–S–H gel and cement paste by small-angle neutron scattering Allen, A.J. and Thomas, J.J., Cement and Concrete Research 37, 319–324 (2007)
  11. Structure and rheology of organoclay suspensions King, H.E., Milner, S.T., Lin, M.Y., Singh, J.P., and Mason, T.G., Phys. Rev. E 75, 021403 (2007)
  12. In Situ Determination of the Size and Polydispersity of Concentrated Emulsions Whitby, C.P., Djerdjev, A.M., Beattie, J.K., and Warr, G.G., Langmuir 23, 1694–1700 (2007)

2006

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  1. Reduction and analysis of SANS and USANS data using IGOR Pro Kline, S.R., J Appl Cryst 39, 895–900 (2006)
  2. Aggregation in a high internal phase emulsion observed by SANS and USANS Zank, J., Reynolds, P.A., Jackson, A.J., Baranyai, K.J., Perriman, A.W., Barker, J.G., Kim, M.-H., and White, J.W., Physica B: Condensed Matter 385-386, 776–779 (2006)
  3. USANS study of wood structure Garvey, C.J., Knott, R.B., Searson, M., and Conroy, J.P., Physica B: Condensed Matter 385-386, 877–879 (2006)
  4. Comparison of the structure on the nanoscale of natural oil-bearing and synthetic rock Connolly, J., Bertram, W., Barker, J., Buckley, C., Edwards, T., and Knott, R., Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 53, 171–178 (2006)
  5. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates Fratini, E., Ridi, F., Chen, S.-H., and Baglioni, P., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S2467–S2483 (2006)
  6. SANS Study of the Effects of Water Vapor Sorption on the Nanoscale Structure of Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid (NAFION) Membranes Kim, M.-H., Glinka, C.J., Grot, S.A., and Grot, W.G., Macromolecules 39, 4775–4787 (2006)
  7. Ultra small angle neutron scattering study of the nanometer to micrometer structure of porous Vycor Kim, M.-H. and Glinka, C.J., Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 91, 305–311 (2006)
  8. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and adhesion in IN625 air plasma sprayed coatings Gnaeupel-Herold, T., Prask, H.J., Barker, J., Biancaniello, F.S., Jiggetts, R.D., and Matejicek, J., Materials Science and Engineering: A 421, 77–85 (2006)

2005

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  1. Design and performance of a thermal-neutron double-crystal diffractometer for USANS at NIST Barker, J.G., Glinka, C.J., Moyer, J.J., Kim, M.H., Drews, A.R., and Agamalian, M., J Appl Cryst 38, 1004–1011 (2005)
  2. Large-Scale Structure in Gels of Attractive Block Copolymer Micelles Crichton, M.A. and Bhatia, S.R., Langmuir 21, 10028–10031 (2005)
  3. Ultra-small-angle scattering studies of complex fluids Bhatia, S.R., Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 9, 404–411 (2005)
  4. Large Scale Structures in Nanocomposite Hydrogels Loizou, E., Butler, P., Porcar, L., Kesselman, E., Talmon, Y., Dundigalla, A., and Schmidt, G., Macromolecules 38, 2047–2049 (2005)
  5. The nanoscale structural response of a natural kaolinitic clayey soil subjected to uniaxial compression Itakura, T., Bertram, W.K., and Knott, R.B., Applied Clay Science 29, 1–14 (2005)
  6. Clay Delamination in Clay/Poly(Dicyclopentadiene) Nanocomposites Quantified by Small Angle Neutron Scattering and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Yoonessi, M., Toghiani, H., Daulton, T.L., Lin, J.-S., and Pittman, C.U., Macromolecules 38, 818–831 (2005)
  7. Unusual phase behavior in mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) and ethyl alcohol Ho, D.L., Hammouda, B., Kline, S.R., and Chen, W.-R., J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 44, 557–564 (2005)

1997

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  1. Development of a thermal-neutron double-crystal diffractometer for USANS at NIST Drews, A.R., Barker, J.G., Glinka, C.J., and Agamalian, M., Physica B: Condensed Matter 241-243, 189–191 (1997)
  2. Optimization of a Bonse–Hart Ultra-Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Facility by Elimination of the Rocking-Curve Wings Agamalian, M., Wignall, G.D., and Triolo, R., J Appl Cryst 30, 345–352 (1997)